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After that, a diverse variety of firearms, large guns in particular, became visible in Tanjore , Dacca , Bijapur , and Murshidabad.
The Mughal emperor Akbar mass-produced matchlocks for the Mughal Army. Akbar is personally known to have shot a leading Rajput commander during the Siege of Chittorgarh.
The Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan is known to have introduced much more advanced matchlocks, their designs were a combination of Ottoman and Mughal designs.
Hyder Ali and his son Tipu Sultan were the first to introduce modern cannons and muskets , their army was also the first in India to have official uniforms.
The Mysorean rockets inspired the development of the Congreve rocket , which the British widely utilized during the Napoleonic Wars and the War of Even though the knowledge of making gunpowder-based weapon has been known after the failed Mongol invasion of Java, and the predecessor of firearms, the pole gun bedil tombak , was recorded as being used by Java in ,   : the knowledge of making "true" firearms came much later, after the middle of the 15th century.
It was brought by the Islamic nations of West Asia, most probably the Arabs. The precise year of introduction is unknown, but it may be safely concluded to be no earlier than Portuguese and Spanish invaders were unpleasantly surprised and even outgunned on occasion.
Majapahit-era cetbang cannons were further improved and used in the Demak Sultanate period during the Demak invasion of Portuguese Malacca. During this period, the iron for manufacturing Javanese cannons was imported from Khorasan in northern Persia.
The material was known by Javanese as wesi kurasani Khorasan iron. These cannons varied between pounders, weighing anywhere between 3—8 tons, length of them between 3—6 m.
It led to near universal use of the swivel-gun and cannons in the Nusantara archipelago. Saltpeter harvesting was recorded by Dutch and German travelers as being common in even the smallest villages and was collected from the decomposition process of large dung hills specifically piled for the purpose.
The Dutch punishment for possession of non-permitted gunpowder appears to have been amputation. On the origins of gunpowder technology, historian Tonio Andrade remarked, "Scholars today overwhelmingly concur that the gun was invented in China.
However, the history of gunpowder is not without controversy. A major problem confronting the study of early gunpowder history is ready access to sources close to the events described.
Often the first records potentially describing use of gunpowder in warfare were written several centuries after the fact, and may well have been colored by the contemporary experiences of the chronicler.
Ambiguous language can make it difficult to distinguish gunpowder weapons from similar technologies that do not rely on gunpowder. A commonly cited example is a report of the Battle of Mohi in Eastern Europe that mentions a "long lance" sending forth "evil-smelling vapors and smoke", which has been variously interpreted by different historians as the "first-gas attack upon European soil" using gunpowder, "the first use of cannon in Europe", or merely a "toxic gas" with no evidence of gunpowder.
Science and technology historian Bert S. Hall makes the observation that, "It goes without saying, however, that historians bent on special pleading, or simply with axes of their own to grind, can find rich material in these terminological thickets.
Another major area of contention in modern studies of the history of gunpowder is regarding the transmission of gunpowder. While the literary and archaeological evidence supports a Chinese origin for gunpowder and guns, the manner in which gunpowder technology was transferred from China to the West is still under debate.
The term black powder was coined in the late 19th century, primarily in the United States , to distinguish prior gunpowder formulations from the new smokeless powders and semi-smokeless powders.
Semi-smokeless powders featured bulk volume properties that approximated black powder, but had significantly reduced amounts of smoke and combustion products.
Smokeless powder has different burning properties pressure vs. This can rupture older weapons designed for black powder. Smokeless powders ranged in color from brownish tan to yellow to white.
Most of the bulk semi-smokeless powders ceased to be manufactured in the s. Potassium nitrate is the most important ingredient in terms of both bulk and function because the combustion process releases oxygen from the potassium nitrate, promoting the rapid burning of the other ingredients.
Charcoal does not consist of pure carbon; rather, it consists of partially pyrolyzed cellulose , in which the wood is not completely decomposed.
Carbon differs from ordinary charcoal. Whereas charcoal's autoignition temperature is relatively low, carbon's is much greater.
Thus, a black powder composition containing pure carbon would burn similarly to a match head, at best. The current standard composition for the black powders that are manufactured by pyrotechnicians was adopted as long ago as After manufacturing grains from press-cake in the usual way, his process tumbled the powder with graphite dust for 12 hours.
This formed a graphite coating on each grain that reduced its ability to absorb moisture. Neither the use of graphite nor sodium nitrate was new.
Another suggestion is that it was William Lobb , the planthunter, who recognised the possibilities of sodium nitrate during his travels in South America.
Lammot du Pont would have known about the use of graphite and probably also knew about the plants in south-west England.
In his patent he was careful to state that his claim was for the combination of graphite with sodium nitrate-based powder, rather than for either of the two individual technologies.
Powder used for rocketry can use a slower burn rate since it accelerates the projectile for a much longer time—whereas powders for weapons such as flintlocks, cap-locks, or matchlocks need a higher burn rate to accelerate the projectile in a much shorter distance.
Cannons usually used lower burn-rate powders, because most would burst with higher burn-rate powders. In the First Opium war, the mixture for Qing China gunpowder contained a high ratio of charcoal which gave it a high stability and longer shelf life but generated less kinetic energy when ignited, decreasing the range and accuracy.
In comparison, the mixture for British gunpowder contained a higher ratio of sulfur, allowing the powder to burn faster and thus generate more kinetic energy.
Besides black powder, there are other historically important types of gunpowder. Prismatic Brown Powder is a large-grained product the Rottweil Company introduced in in Germany, which was adopted by the British Royal Navy shortly thereafter.
The French navy adopted a fine, 3. These brown powders reduced burning rate even further by using as little as 2 percent sulfur and using charcoal made from rye straw that had not been completely charred, hence the brown color.
Lesmok powder was a product developed by DuPont in ,  one of several semi-smokeless products in the industry containing a mixture of black and nitrocellulose powder.
It was sold to Winchester and others primarily for. Its advantage was that it was believed at the time to be less corrosive than smokeless powders then in use.
It was not understood in the U. The bulkier black powder fouling better disperses primer residue. Failure to mitigate primer corrosion by dispersion caused the false impression that nitrocellulose-based powder caused corrosion.
The development of smokeless powders, such as cordite, in the late 19th century created the need for a spark-sensitive priming charge , such as gunpowder.
However, the sulfur content of traditional gunpowders caused corrosion problems with Cordite Mk I and this led to the introduction of a range of sulfur-free gunpowders, of varying grain sizes.
Sulfur's main role in gunpowder is to decrease the ignition temperature. A sample reaction for sulfur-free gunpowder would be:.
The original dry-compounded powder used in 15th-century Europe was known as "Serpentine", either a reference to Satan  or to a common artillery piece that used it.
Vibration during transportation could cause the components to separate again, requiring remixing in the field.
Also if the quality of the saltpeter was low for instance if it was contaminated with highly hygroscopic calcium nitrate , or if the powder was simply old due to the mildly hygroscopic nature of potassium nitrate , in humid weather it would need to be re-dried.
The dust from "repairing" powder in the field was a major hazard. Loading cannons or bombards before the powder-making advances of the Renaissance was a skilled art.
Fine powder loaded haphazardly or too tightly would burn incompletely or too slowly. Typically, the breech-loading powder chamber in the rear of the piece was filled only about half full, the serpentine powder neither too compressed nor too loose, a wooden bung pounded in to seal the chamber from the barrel when assembled, and the projectile placed on.
A carefully determined empty space was necessary for the charge to burn effectively. When the cannon was fired through the touchhole, turbulence from the initial surface combustion caused the rest of the powder to be rapidly exposed to the flame.
The advent of much more powerful and easy to use corned powder changed this procedure, but serpentine was used with older guns into the 17th century.
For propellants to oxidize and burn rapidly and effectively, the combustible ingredients must be reduced to the smallest possible particle sizes, and be as thoroughly mixed as possible.
Once mixed, however, for better results in a gun, makers discovered that the final product should be in the form of individual dense grains that spread the fire quickly from grain to grain, much as straw or twigs catch fire more quickly than a pile of sawdust.
In late 14th century Europe and China,  gunpowder was improved by wet grinding; liquid, such as distilled spirits  was added during the grinding-together of the ingredients and the moist paste dried afterwards.
The principle of wet mixing to prevent the separation of dry ingredients, invented for gunpowder, is used today in the pharmaceutical industry.
The balls were then crushed in a mortar by the gunner immediately before use, with the old problem of uneven particle size and packing causing unpredictable results.
If the right size particles were chosen, however, the result was a great improvement in power. Forming the damp paste into corn -sized clumps by hand or with the use of a sieve instead of larger balls produced a product after drying that loaded much better, as each tiny piece provided its own surrounding air space that allowed much more rapid combustion than a fine powder.
An example is cited where 34 pounds of serpentine was needed to shoot a pound ball, but only 18 pounds of corned powder. Because the dry powdered ingredients must be mixed and bonded together for extrusion and cut into grains to maintain the blend, size reduction and mixing is done while the ingredients are damp, usually with water.
After , instead of forming grains by hand or with sieves, the damp mill-cake was pressed in molds to increase its density and extract the liquid, forming press-cake.
The pressing took varying amounts of time, depending on conditions such as atmospheric humidity. The hard, dense product was broken again into tiny pieces, which were separated with sieves to produce a uniform product for each purpose: coarse powders for cannons, finer grained powders for muskets, and the finest for small hand guns and priming.
Modern corning first compresses the fine black powder meal into blocks with a fixed density 1. By the late 19th century manufacturing focused on standard grades of black powder from Fg used in large bore rifles and shotguns, through FFg medium and small-bore arms such as muskets and fusils , FFFg small-bore rifles and pistols , and FFFFg extreme small bore, short pistols and most commonly for priming flintlocks.
Owing to the large market of antique and replica black-powder firearms in the US, modern gunpowder substitutes like Pyrodex , Triple Seven and Black Mag3  pellets have been developed since the s.
These products, which should not be confused with smokeless powders, aim to produce less fouling solid residue , while maintaining the traditional volumetric measurement system for charges.
Claims of less corrosiveness of these products have been controversial however. New cleaning products for black-powder guns have also been developed for this market.
For the most powerful black powder, meal powder , a wood charcoal, is used. The best wood for the purpose is Pacific willow ,  but others such as alder or buckthorn can be used.
In Great Britain between the 15th and 19th centuries charcoal from alder buckthorn was greatly prized for gunpowder manufacture; cottonwood was used by the American Confederate States.
Originally, this was with a mortar-and-pestle or a similarly operating stamping-mill, using copper, bronze or other non-sparking materials, until supplanted by the rotating ball mill principle with non-sparking bronze or lead.
Historically, a marble or limestone edge runner mill, running on a limestone bed, was used in Great Britain; however, by the mid 19th century this had changed to either an iron-shod stone wheel or a cast iron wheel running on an iron bed.
This also helps the extremely soluble saltpeter to mix into the microscopic pores of the very high surface-area charcoal. Around the late 14th century, European powdermakers first began adding liquid during grinding to improve mixing, reduce dust, and with it the risk of explosion.
Not only did corned powder keep better because of its reduced surface area, gunners also found that it was more powerful and easier to load into guns.
Before long, powder-makers standardized the process by forcing mill cake through sieves instead of corning powder by hand.
The improvement was based on reducing the surface area of a higher density composition. At the beginning of the 19th century, makers increased density further by static pressing.
They broke the dried slabs with hammers or rollers, and sorted the granules with sieves into different grades. In the United States, Eleuthere Irenee du Pont , who had learned the trade from Lavoisier, tumbled the dried grains in rotating barrels to round the edges and increase durability during shipping and handling.
Sharp grains rounded off in transport, producing fine "meal dust" that changed the burning properties. Another advance was the manufacture of kiln charcoal by distilling wood in heated iron retorts instead of burning it in earthen pits.
Controlling the temperature influenced the power and consistency of the finished gunpowder. In , in response to high prices for Indian saltpeter, DuPont chemists developed a process using potash or mined potassium chloride to convert plentiful Chilean sodium nitrate to potassium nitrate.
The following year the Gatebeck Low Gunpowder Works in Cumbria Great Britain started a plant to manufacture potassium nitrate by essentially the same chemical process.
During the 18th century, gunpowder factories became increasingly dependent on mechanical energy. A paper from laments that "Gunpowder is such a nervous and sensitive spirit, that in almost every process of manufacture it changes under our hands as the weather changes.
The United Nations Model Regulations on the Transportation of Dangerous Goods and national transportation authorities, such as United States Department of Transportation , have classified gunpowder black powder as a Group A: Primary explosive substance for shipment because it ignites so easily.
Complete manufactured devices containing black powder are usually classified as Group D: Secondary detonating substance, or black powder, or article containing secondary detonating substance , such as firework, class D model rocket engine, etc.
As explosives, they all fall into the category of Class 1. Besides its use as a propellant in firearms and artillery, black powder's other main use has been as a blasting powder in quarrying, mining, and road construction including railroad construction.
During the 19th century, outside of war emergencies such as the Crimean War or the American Civil War, more black powder was used in these industrial uses than in firearms and artillery.
Dynamite gradually replaced it for those uses. Today, industrial explosives for such uses are still a huge market, but most of the market is in newer explosives rather than black powder.
Beginning in the s, gunpowder or smokeless powder was used in rivet guns , stun guns for animals, cable splicers and other industrial construction tools.
Today powder-actuated tools are still an important part of various industries, but the cartridges usually use smokeless powders. Industrial shotguns have been used to eliminate persistent material rings in operating rotary kilns such as those for cement, lime, phosphate, etc.
Gunpowder has occasionally been employed for other purposes besides weapons, mining, and construction:.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Black powder. Explosive once used as propellant in firearms. For other uses, see Gunpowder disambiguation.
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November Main articles: History of gunpowder and Timeline of the Gunpowder Age. Further information: History of the firearm. Main articles: List of inventions in the medieval Islamic world and Alchemy and chemistry in medieval Islam.
Main article: Historiography of gunpowder and gun transmission. Main article: Powder mill. Fire: Servant, Scourge, and Enigma.
Courier Dover Publications. Retrieved 2 February Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin. Slate, slate, everywhere slate: The cultural landscapes of the Willunga slate quarries, South Australia.
Australasian Historical Archaeology, 25, 5— History of Science and Technology in Islam. Manufacture and transportation of gunpowder in the Ottoman Empire: — M.
McNeill University of Chicago Press. Retrieved 29 July Berkeley: University of California Press, Asher Rare Books.
Retrieved 4 May A bibliography of firework books: works on recreative fireworks from the sixteenth to the twentieth century.
Oxford University Press. Historical Dictionary of Medieval India. Scarecrow Press. Moments before the start of his execution, on January 31, , Fawkes jumped from a ladder while climbing to the gallows, breaking his neck and dying.
Following the failed Gunpowder Plot, new laws were instituted in England that eliminated the right of Catholics to vote, among other repressive restrictions.
In , Parliament established November 5 as a day of public thanksgiving. As dusk falls, villagers and city dwellers across Britain light bonfires, set off fireworks and burn effigies of Fawkes.
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He famously married a series of six wives in his search for political alliance, marital bliss and a healthy male heir. His desire to She sought to return England to the Catholic Eleanor of Aquitaine was one of the most powerful and influential figures of the Middle Ages.
Inheriting a vast estate at the age of 15 made her the most sought-after bride of her generation. She would eventually become the queen of France, the queen of England and On July 20, , during World War II , a plot by senior-level German military officials to murder Adolf Hitler and then take control of his government failed when a bomb planted in a briefcase went off but did not kill the Nazi leader.
The assassination Catholicism in England was heavily repressed under Queen Elizabeth I, particularly after the pope excommunicated her in During her reign, dozens of priests were put to death, and Catholics could not even legally celebrate Mass or be married according to their own rites.
By her death in , Victoria was queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland — and empress of India — She was the last of the House of Hanover and gave her name to an era, the Victorian Age.
During her reign the English monarchy took on its modern One of the most renowned kings in English history, Henry V led two successful invasions of France, cheering his outnumbered troops to victory at the Battle of Agincourt and eventually securing full control of the French throne.
His portrayal in three of
Creepers can drop pieces of gunpowder upon death. Looting can increase this by one per level, with a maximum of 5 gunpowder. Ghasts can drop pieces of gunpowder upon death.
Witches can drop pieces of gunpowder upon death. Looting can increase this by three per level, with a maximum of 15 gunpowder.
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Desert temple. Woodland mansion. Adding more gunpowder increases the duration of the rocket. Up to three gunpowder can be used.
Up to five firework stars can also be used with three gunpowder. Up to seven firework stars can be used by using firework stars instead of additional gunpowder.
All firework stars explode almost simultaneously when the rocket detonates. When crafted this way without a firework star , the rocket does not have explosion effects.
It is also possible that Schwarz is not a historical person at all, but a symbolic inventor figure taking his name from that of Schwarzpulver "black powder", the German term for gunpowder Gartz The first reference to Schwarz is found in an anonymous manual of pyrotechnics of ca.
The relevant passage credits an alchemist and master of arts "Master Berthold" maister perchtold with the accidental discovery of gunpowder, without giving any further details as to time or place.
Such details are first reported by Franz Helm , an author active in Landshut during the s to s, who is also the first to introduce the epithet "the Black" in Latinized form, as niger.
According to Helm,. Feldhaus thinks that reports of a "Master Berthold" in the early 15th century, barely 25 years after this master's death, should be taken seriously as historical testimony of an alchemist Berthold, called "the Black", member of the Order of St.
Bernard , who developed a recipe for effective gunpowder in ca. The recipes given in the 15th-century German manuals for pyrotechnics would then be directly derived from the recipe as developed by Berthold.
This historical Master Berthold, who would not have invented gunpowder ex nihilo , but who would rather have developed an effective recipe which opened technological possibilities and initiated the development of gunpowder warfare during the 15th century, is likened by Feldhaus to James Watt who did not so much "invent" the steam engine as improve the invention of Denis Papin to a point where its application became worthwhile.
Johann Anzengruber - the less successful father of Austrian playwright Ludwig Anzengruber - wrote a play about Berthold Schwarz, which was produced in 19th Century Vienna and was notable for the spectacular explosion at the end.
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