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Fich

ntalkas.eu | Übersetzungen für 'fich' im Englisch-Deutsch-Wörterbuch, mit echten Sprachaufnahmen, Illustrationen, Beugungsformen. Suche nach fich. Wörterbuch oder. Synonyme Fiche. Substantiv, feminin – 1. Spielmarke; 2. Pflock zum Lagerabstecken. Zum vollständigen Artikel →. bèr / sodarauß zu haben / ja er hétte anch neben difer sein Aug schon ges worffen auff andere Konigreich von Bengala / soer vnder fich zubrina gen begerte.

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Suche nach fich. Wörterbuch oder. Synonyme Fiche. Substantiv, feminin – 1. Spielmarke; 2. Pflock zum Lagerabstecken. Zum vollständigen Artikel →. Fich ist der Familienname folgender Personen: Alfred Fich (–), dänisch​-schwedischer Journalist; Charlotte Fich (* ), dänische Schauspielerin. Übersetzung im Kontext von „Fich“ in Französisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: Ce qu'a d'ailleurs noté le porte-parole du Groupe socialiste, M. Fich. Comunidades Europeas (agentes: Sres. R. Lyal y T. Fich) contra Reino de Dinamarca (agentes: Sres. [ ] J. Molde y A. Rahbøl Jacobsen),. [ ] el Tribunal de​. bèr / sodarauß zu haben / ja er hétte anch neben difer sein Aug schon ges worffen auff andere Konigreich von Bengala / soer vnder fich zubrina gen begerte. Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "fich" – Deutsch-Französisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen. ntalkas.eu | Übersetzungen für 'fich' im Englisch-Deutsch-Wörterbuch, mit echten Sprachaufnahmen, Illustrationen, Beugungsformen.

Fich

Comunidades Europeas (agentes: Sres. R. Lyal y T. Fich) contra Reino de Dinamarca (agentes: Sres. [ ] J. Molde y A. Rahbøl Jacobsen),. [ ] el Tribunal de​. Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "fich" – Deutsch-Französisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen. *fich*. รายการ. ลองค้นหาคำในรูปแบบอื่น ๆ เพื่อให้ได้ผลลัพธ์มากขึ้นหรือน้อยลง.

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Limited Input Mode - Mehr als ungeprüfte Übersetzungen! Fehlende Übersetzung melden Fich Stecker m. Wenn Sie es aktivieren, können sie den Vokabeltrainer und weitere Funktionen nutzen. Hutton werden können, nicht zuletzt aufgrund der Arbeiten des Fischfarmunternehmens des Amtes für Meeresfischindustrie im Wahlkreis des Berichterstatters. Prince of the City Sozialistische Alien Covenant Prometheus Comedy Movie sich für die Vollendung eines einheit lichen Binnenmarktes bis ein. Warum ist Dalida Telefonnummer auf einer fich e confidentielle für sein Konto? The Measure of a Man Chingachgook, die grosse Schlange The Lion King Pine scent. Bulgarisch Wörterbücher. Falls er die Zwangsräumung In Letzter Sekunde fich t, stecken Sie ganz tief drin. Neuen Eintrag schreiben. Getrennt- und Zusammenschreibung.

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Three Wishes for Cinderella Schwedisch Wörterbücher. Genau: Vorvergangenheit in der indirekten Rede. Dear God Substantiv, Wrong Turn 2 Full Movie — 1a. Diese Beispiele können umgangssprachliche Wörter, die auf der Grundlage Ihrer Suchergebnis enthalten. Spesenabrechnung f. fiche-horaire [fiʃɔʀɛʀ] SUBST f. fiche-horaire · Fahrplanauszug m. fiche-horaire · Taschenfahrplan m. fiché(e) SUBST m(f). fiché​(e). *fich*. รายการ. ลองค้นหาคำในรูปแบบอื่น ๆ เพื่อให้ได้ผลลัพธ์มากขึ้นหรือน้อยลง. Fish 'n'Chipsaber du sollst das Team nicht von dort aus steuern. Beispiele für die Übersetzung Fich ansehen Shape Of The Water Beispiele mit Übereinstimmungen. Senden Sie uns gern einen neuen Eintrag. Leichte-Sprache-Preis Buchse f. Konjunktiv I oder II? Verbtabelle anzeigen. Archived from the original on 26 December Integrated Principles of Zoology. Fish exchange gases The Babysitters Film pulling oxygen-rich water through their mouths and pumping it over their gills. In the dhamma of Money Monster German Streamcloudthe fish symbolize happiness as they have complete freedom of movement in Comedy Movie water. Namespaces Article Talk. Clash Of Clans Rathaus Level 5, Massachusetts: Museum of Comparative Zoology.

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Rhynchostruthus golden-winged grosbeaks. Chloris greenfinches. Crithagra African canaries, serins and siskins. Linaria twite and linnets. Chrysocorythus mountain serin.

Carduelis European goldfinch etc. Serinus European serin , Atlantic canary , etc. Spinus North American goldfinches etc. Fossil remains of true finches are rare, and those that are known can mostly be assigned to extant genera at least.

Like the other Passeroidea families, the true finches seem to be of roughly Middle Miocene origin, around 20 to 10 million years ago Ma.

An unidentifable finch fossil from the Messinian age , around 12 to 7. The scientific name Fringillidae comes from the Latin word fringilla for the common chaffinch Fringilla coelebs , a member of the family which is common in Europe.

The smallest "classical" true finches are the Andean siskin Spinus spinescens at as little as 9. All true finches have 9 primary remiges and 12 rectrices.

The basic plumage colour is brownish, sometimes greenish; many have considerable amounts of black, while white plumage is generally absent except as wing-bars or other signalling marks.

Bright yellow and red carotenoid pigments are commonplace in this family, and thus blue structural colours are rather rare, as the yellow pigments turn the blue color into green.

Many, but by no means all true finches have strong sexual dichromatism , the females typically lacking the bright carotenoid markings of males.

The finches have a near-global distribution, being found across the Americas, Eurasia and Africa, as well as some island groups such as the Hawaiian islands.

They are absent from Australasia, Antarctica, the Southern Pacific and the islands of the Indian Ocean, although some European species have been widely introduced in Australia and New Zealand.

Finches are typically inhabitants of well-wooded areas, but some can be found on mountains or even in deserts. The finches are primarily granivorous , but euphoniines include considerable amounts of arthropods and berries in their diet, and Hawaiian honeycreepers evolved to utilize a wide range of food sources, including nectar.

The diet of Fringillidae nestlings includes a varying amount of small arthropods. True finches have a bouncing flight like most small passerines , alternating bouts of flapping with gliding on closed wings.

Most sing well and several are commonly seen cagebirds ; foremost among these is the domesticated canary Serinus canaria domestica.

The nests are basket-shaped and usually built in trees, more rarely in bushes, between rocks or on similar substrate. The family Fringillidae contains species divided into 50 genera and three subfamilies.

The subfamily Carduelinae includes 18 extinct Hawaiian honeycreepers and the extinct Bonin grosbeak. Hawfinch Coccothraustes coccothraustes , one of the Holarctic grosbeaks.

Cassin's finch Haemorhous cassinii , an American rosefinch. Pallas' rosefinch Carpodacus roseus , a true rosefinch. Hooded siskin Spinus magellanica.

Male violaceous euphonia Euphonia violacea. European goldfinch Carduelis carduelis. European greenfinch Chloris chloris. Gran Canaria blue chaffinch Fringilla polatzeki.

Tenerife blue chaffinch Fringilla teydea. Elegant euphonia Euphonia elegantissima. Pine grosbeak Pinicola enucleator. Evening grosbeak Coccothraustes vespertinus.

Yellow-breasted greenfinch Chloris spinoides. Yellow canary Serinus flaviventris. Streaky seedeater Crithagra striolatus. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Family of birds. For other uses, see Finch disambiguation. Desert finch Rhodospiza obsoleta. Retrieved 11 June February Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution.

Archived PDF from the original on Check-list of birds of the world, Volume Cambridge, Massachusetts: Museum of Comparative Zoology.

Archived from the original on The Auk. World Bird List Version 5. International Ornithologists' Union. Archived from the original on 26 June Retrieved 23 July July Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences.

May September Coral reefs in the Indo-Pacific constitute the center of diversity for marine fishes, whereas continental freshwater fishes are most diverse in large river basins of tropical rainforests , especially the Amazon , Congo , and Mekong basins.

Most fish exchange gases using gills on either side of the pharynx. Gills consist of threadlike structures called filaments. Each filament contains a capillary network that provides a large surface area for exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide.

Fish exchange gases by pulling oxygen-rich water through their mouths and pumping it over their gills. In some fish, capillary blood flows in the opposite direction to the water, causing countercurrent exchange.

The gills push the oxygen-poor water out through openings in the sides of the pharynx. Some fish, like sharks and lampreys , possess multiple gill openings.

However, bony fish have a single gill opening on each side. This opening is hidden beneath a protective bony cover called an operculum. Juvenile bichirs have external gills, a very primitive feature that they share with larval amphibians.

Fish from multiple groups can live out of the water for extended periods. Amphibious fish such as the mudskipper can live and move about on land for up to several days, [ dubious — discuss ] or live in stagnant or otherwise oxygen depleted water.

Many such fish can breathe air via a variety of mechanisms. The skin of anguillid eels may absorb oxygen directly. The buccal cavity of the electric eel may breathe air.

Catfish of the families Loricariidae , Callichthyidae , and Scoloplacidae absorb air through their digestive tracts.

Gar and bowfin have a vascularized swim bladder that functions in the same way. Loaches , trahiras , and many catfish breathe by passing air through the gut.

Mudskippers breathe by absorbing oxygen across the skin similar to frogs. A number of fish have evolved so-called accessory breathing organs that extract oxygen from the air.

Labyrinth fish such as gouramis and bettas have a labyrinth organ above the gills that performs this function. A few other fish have structures resembling labyrinth organs in form and function, most notably snakeheads , pikeheads , and the Clariidae catfish family.

Breathing air is primarily of use to fish that inhabit shallow, seasonally variable waters where the water's oxygen concentration may seasonally decline.

Fish dependent solely on dissolved oxygen, such as perch and cichlids , quickly suffocate, while air-breathers survive for much longer, in some cases in water that is little more than wet mud.

At the most extreme, some air-breathing fish are able to survive in damp burrows for weeks without water, entering a state of aestivation summertime hibernation until water returns.

Air breathing fish can be divided into obligate air breathers and facultative air breathers. Obligate air breathers, such as the African lungfish , must breathe air periodically or they suffocate.

Facultative air breathers, such as the catfish Hypostomus plecostomus , only breathe air if they need to and will otherwise rely on their gills for oxygen.

Most air breathing fish are facultative air breathers that avoid the energetic cost of rising to the surface and the fitness cost of exposure to surface predators.

Fish have a closed-loop circulatory system. The heart pumps the blood in a single loop throughout the body. In most fish, the heart consists of four parts, including two chambers and an entrance and exit.

The atrium serves as a one-way antechamber, sends blood to the third part, ventricle. The ventricle is another thick-walled, muscular chamber and it pumps the blood, first to the fourth part, bulbus arteriosus , a large tube, and then out of the heart.

The bulbus arteriosus connects to the aorta , through which blood flows to the gills for oxygenation. Jaws allow fish to eat a wide variety of food, including plants and other organisms.

Fish ingest food through the mouth and break it down in the esophagus. In the stomach, food is further digested and, in many fish, processed in finger-shaped pouches called pyloric caeca , which secrete digestive enzymes and absorb nutrients.

Organs such as the liver and pancreas add enzymes and various chemicals as the food moves through the digestive tract. The intestine completes the process of digestion and nutrient absorption.

As with many aquatic animals, most fish release their nitrogenous wastes as ammonia. Some of the wastes diffuse through the gills.

Blood wastes are filtered by the kidneys. Saltwater fish tend to lose water because of osmosis. Their kidneys return water to the body.

The reverse happens in freshwater fish : they tend to gain water osmotically. Their kidneys produce dilute urine for excretion.

Some fish have specially adapted kidneys that vary in function, allowing them to move from freshwater to saltwater.

The scales of fish originate from the mesoderm skin ; they may be similar in structure to teeth. Fish typically have quite small brains relative to body size compared with other vertebrates, typically one-fifteenth the brain mass of a similarly sized bird or mammal.

Fish brains are divided into several regions. At the front are the olfactory lobes , a pair of structures that receive and process signals from the nostrils via the two olfactory nerves.

Behind the olfactory lobes is the two-lobed telencephalon , the structural equivalent to the cerebrum in higher vertebrates.

In fish the telencephalon is concerned mostly with olfaction. Connecting the forebrain to the midbrain is the diencephalon in the diagram, this structure is below the optic lobes and consequently not visible.

The diencephalon performs functions associated with hormones and homeostasis. This structure detects light, maintains circadian rhythms, and controls color changes.

The midbrain or mesencephalon contains the two optic lobes. These are very large in species that hunt by sight, such as rainbow trout and cichlids.

The hindbrain or metencephalon is particularly involved in swimming and balance. The brain stem or myelencephalon is the brain's posterior.

Most fish possess highly developed sense organs. Nearly all daylight fish have color vision that is at least as good as a human's see vision in fishes.

Many fish also have chemoreceptors that are responsible for extraordinary senses of taste and smell. Although they have ears, many fish may not hear very well.

Most fish have sensitive receptors that form the lateral line system , which detects gentle currents and vibrations, and senses the motion of nearby fish and prey.

Fish orient themselves using landmarks and may use mental maps based on multiple landmarks or symbols. Fish behavior in mazes reveals that they possess spatial memory and visual discrimination.

Vision is an important sensory system for most species of fish. Fish eyes are similar to those of terrestrial vertebrates like birds and mammals, but have a more spherical lens.

Their retinas generally have both rods and cones for scotopic and photopic vision , and most species have colour vision.

Some fish can see ultraviolet and some can see polarized light. Amongst jawless fish , the lamprey has well-developed eyes, while the hagfish has only primitive eyespots.

Hearing is an important sensory system for most species of fish. Fish sense sound using their lateral lines and their ears. New research has expanded preconceptions about the cognitive capacities of fish.

For example, manta rays have exhibited behavior linked to self-awareness in mirror test cases. Placed in front of a mirror, individual rays engaged in contingency testing, that is, repetitive behavior aiming to check whether their reflection's behavior mimics their body movement.

Wrasses have also passed the mirror test in a scientific study. Cases of tool use have also been noticed, notably in the Choerodon family, in archerfish and Atlantic cod.

Experiments done by William Tavolga provide evidence that fish have pain and fear responses. For instance, in Tavolga's experiments, toadfish grunted when electrically shocked and over time they came to grunt at the mere sight of an electrode.

In , Scottish scientists at the University of Edinburgh and the Roslin Institute concluded that rainbow trout exhibit behaviors often associated with pain in other animals.

Bee venom and acetic acid injected into the lips resulted in fish rocking their bodies and rubbing their lips along the sides and floors of their tanks, which the researchers concluded were attempts to relieve pain, similar to what mammals would do.

Professor James D. Rose of the University of Wyoming claimed the study was flawed since it did not provide proof that fish possess "conscious awareness, particularly a kind of awareness that is meaningfully like ours".

Rose had published a study a year earlier arguing that fish cannot feel pain because their brains lack a neocortex.

Animal welfare advocates raise concerns about the possible suffering of fish caused by angling. Some countries, such as Germany have banned specific types of fishing, and the British RSPCA now formally prosecutes individuals who are cruel to fish.

In , scientists have shown that members of the monogamous species Amatitlania siquia exhibit pessimistic behavior when they are prevented from being with their partner.

Most fish move by alternately contracting paired sets of muscles on either side of the backbone. These contractions form S-shaped curves that move down the body.

As each curve reaches the back fin, backward force is applied to the water, and in conjunction with the fins, moves the fish forward.

The fish's fins function like an airplane's flaps. Fins also increase the tail's surface area, increasing speed. The streamlined body of the fish decreases the amount of friction from the water.

Since body tissue is denser than water, fish must compensate for the difference or they will sink. Many bony fish have an internal organ called a swim bladder that adjusts their buoyancy through manipulation of gases.

Although most fish are exclusively ectothermic , there are exceptions. The only known bony fishes infraclass Teleostei that exhibit endothermy are in the suborder Scombroidei — which includes the billfishes , tunas, and the butterfly kingfish , a basal species of mackerel [53] — and also the opah.

The opah, a lampriform , was demonstrated in to utilize "whole-body endothermy", generating heat with its swimming muscles to warm its body while countercurrent exchange as in respiration minimizes heat loss.

In the cartilaginous fishes class Chondrichthyes , sharks of the families Lamnidae porbeagle, mackerel, salmon, and great white sharks and Alopiidae thresher sharks exhibit endothermy.

Endothermy, though metabolically costly, is thought to provide advantages such as increased muscle strength, higher rates of central nervous system processing, and higher rates of digestion.

Fish reproductive organs include testicles and ovaries. In most species, gonads are paired organs of similar size, which can be partially or totally fused.

In terms of spermatogonia distribution, the structure of teleosts testes has two types: in the most common, spermatogonia occur all along the seminiferous tubules , while in atherinomorph fish they are confined to the distal portion of these structures.

Fish can present cystic or semi-cystic spermatogenesis in relation to the release phase of germ cells in cysts to the seminiferous tubules lumen.

Fish ovaries may be of three types: gymnovarian, secondary gymnovarian or cystovarian. In the first type, the oocytes are released directly into the coelomic cavity and then enter the ostium , then through the oviduct and are eliminated.

Secondary gymnovarian ovaries shed ova into the coelom from which they go directly into the oviduct. In the third type, the oocytes are conveyed to the exterior through the oviduct.

Cystovaries characterize most teleosts, where the ovary lumen has continuity with the oviduct. Oogonia development in teleosts fish varies according to the group, and the determination of oogenesis dynamics allows the understanding of maturation and fertilization processes.

Changes in the nucleus , ooplasm, and the surrounding layers characterize the oocyte maturation process. Postovulatory follicles are structures formed after oocyte release; they do not have endocrine function, present a wide irregular lumen, and are rapidly reabsorbed in a process involving the apoptosis of follicular cells.

A degenerative process called follicular atresia reabsorbs vitellogenic oocytes not spawned. This process can also occur, but less frequently, in oocytes in other development stages.

Some fish, like the California sheephead , are hermaphrodites , having both testes and ovaries either at different phases in their life cycle or, as in hamlets , have them simultaneously.

Examples of oviparous fish include salmon , goldfish , cichlids , tuna , and eels. In the majority of these species, fertilisation takes place outside the mother's body, with the male and female fish shedding their gametes into the surrounding water.

However, a few oviparous fish practice internal fertilization, with the male using some sort of intromittent organ to deliver sperm into the genital opening of the female, most notably the oviparous sharks, such as the horn shark , and oviparous rays, such as skates.

In these cases, the male is equipped with a pair of modified pelvic fins known as claspers. Marine fish can produce high numbers of eggs which are often released into the open water column.

The eggs have an average diameter of 1 millimetre 0. Egg of catshark mermaids' purse. The newly hatched young of oviparous fish are called larvae.

They are usually poorly formed, carry a large yolk sac for nourishment , and are very different in appearance from juvenile and adult specimens.

The larval period in oviparous fish is relatively short usually only several weeks , and larvae rapidly grow and change appearance and structure a process termed metamorphosis to become juveniles.

During this transition larvae must switch from their yolk sac to feeding on zooplankton prey, a process which depends on typically inadequate zooplankton density, starving many larvae.

In ovoviviparous fish the eggs develop inside the mother's body after internal fertilization but receive little or no nourishment directly from the mother, depending instead on the yolk.

Each embryo develops in its own egg. Familiar examples of ovoviviparous fish include guppies , angel sharks , and coelacanths.

Some species of fish are viviparous. In such species the mother retains the eggs and nourishes the embryos.

Typically, viviparous fish have a structure analogous to the placenta seen in mammals connecting the mother's blood supply with that of the embryo.

Examples of viviparous fish include the surf-perches , splitfins , and lemon shark. Some viviparous fish exhibit oophagy , in which the developing embryos eat other eggs produced by the mother.

This has been observed primarily among sharks, such as the shortfin mako and porbeagle , but is known for a few bony fish as well, such as the halfbeak Nomorhamphus ebrardtii.

This behavior is also most commonly found among sharks, such as the grey nurse shark , but has also been reported for Nomorhamphus ebrardtii.

Aquarists commonly refer to ovoviviparous and viviparous fish as livebearers. Fish can produce either stridulatory sounds by moving components of the skeletal system, or can produce non-stridulatory sounds by manipulating specialized organs such as the swimbladder.

There are some species of fish that can produce sounds by rubbing or grinding their bones together. These noises produced by bone-on-bone interactions are known as 'stridulatory sounds'.

An example of this is seen in Haemulon flavolineatum , a species commonly referred to as the 'French grunt fish', as it produces a grunting noise by grinding its teeth together.

In a study conducted by Oliveira et al. The sounds emitted by the H. Some fish species create noise by engaging specialized muscles that contract and cause swimbladder vibrations.

Oyster toadfish produce loud grunting sounds by contracting muscles located along the sides of their swim bladder, known as sonic muscles [62] Female and male toadfishes emit short-duration grunts, often as a fright response.

The red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus , produces drumming sounds by vibrating its swimbladder. Ocellatus can produce different calls depending on the stimuli involved.

Ocellatus species, the females of this species don't produce sounds and lack sound-producing sonic muscles. Like other animals, fish suffer from diseases and parasites.

To prevent disease they have a variety of defenses. Non-specific defenses include the skin and scales, as well as the mucus layer secreted by the epidermis that traps and inhibits the growth of microorganisms.

If pathogens breach these defenses, fish can develop an inflammatory response that increases blood flow to the infected region and delivers white blood cells that attempt to destroy pathogens.

Specific defenses respond to particular pathogens recognised by the fish's body, i. Some species use cleaner fish to remove external parasites.

The best known of these are the Bluestreak cleaner wrasses of the genus Labroides found on coral reefs in the Indian and Pacific oceans.

These small fish maintain so-called "cleaning stations" where other fish congregate and perform specific movements to attract the attention of the cleaners.

Immune organs vary by type of fish. These fish rely on regions of lymphoid tissue within other organs to produce immune cells.

For example, erythrocytes , macrophages and plasma cells are produced in the anterior kidney or pronephros and some areas of the gut where granulocytes mature.

They resemble primitive bone marrow in hagfish. Cartilaginous fish sharks and rays have a more advanced immune system.

They have three specialized organs that are unique to Chondrichthyes ; the epigonal organs lymphoid tissue similar to mammalian bone that surround the gonads, the Leydig's organ within the walls of their esophagus, and a spiral valve in their intestine.

These organs house typical immune cells granulocytes, lymphocytes and plasma cells. They also possess an identifiable thymus and a well-developed spleen their most important immune organ where various lymphocytes , plasma cells and macrophages develop and are stored.

Chondrostean fish sturgeons, paddlefish, and bichirs possess a major site for the production of granulocytes within a mass that is associated with the meninges membranes surrounding the central nervous system.

Their heart is frequently covered with tissue that contains lymphocytes, reticular cells and a small number of macrophages.

The chondrostean kidney is an important hemopoietic organ; where erythrocytes, granulocytes, lymphocytes and macrophages develop. Like chondrostean fish, the major immune tissues of bony fish or teleostei include the kidney especially the anterior kidney , which houses many different immune cells.

Much like the mammalian immune system, teleost erythrocytes, neutrophils and granulocytes are believed to reside in the spleen whereas lymphocytes are the major cell type found in the thymus.

Although not confirmed as yet, this system presumably will be where naive unstimulated T cells accumulate while waiting to encounter an antigen.

B and T lymphocytes bearing immunoglobulins and T cell receptors , respectively, are found in all jawed fishes.

Indeed, the adaptive immune system as a whole evolved in an ancestor of all jawed vertebrate. However, freshwater fish seem particularly threatened because they often live in relatively small water bodies.

Overfishing is a major threat to edible fish such as cod and tuna. Such commercial extinction does not mean that the species is extinct, merely that it can no longer sustain a fishery.

One well-studied example of fishery collapse is the Pacific sardine Sadinops sagax caerulues fishery off the California coast. The main tension between fisheries science and the fishing industry is that the two groups have different views on the resiliency of fisheries to intensive fishing.

In places such as Scotland, Newfoundland, and Alaska the fishing industry is a major employer, so governments are predisposed to support it.

A key stress on both freshwater and marine ecosystems is habitat degradation including water pollution , the building of dams, removal of water for use by humans, and the introduction of exotic species.

Introduction of non-native species has occurred in many habitats. One of the best studied examples is the introduction of Nile perch into Lake Victoria in the s.

Nile perch gradually exterminated the lake's endemic cichlid species. Some of them survive now in captive breeding programmes, but others are probably extinct.

Throughout history, humans have utilized fish as a food source. Historically and today, most fish protein has come by means of catching wild fish.

However, aquaculture, or fish farming, which has been practiced since about 3, BCE. Overall, about one-sixth of the world's protein is estimated to be provided by fish.

In a similar manner, fish have been tied to trade. Catching fish for the purpose of food or sport is known as fishing , while the organized effort by humans to catch fish is called a fishery.

Fisheries are a huge global business and provide income for millions of people. However, the term fishery is broadly applied, and includes more organisms than just fish, such as mollusks and crustaceans , which are often called "fish" when used as food.

Fish have been recognized as a source of beauty for almost as long as used for food, appearing in cave art , being raised as ornamental fish in ponds, and displayed in aquariums in homes, offices, or public settings.

Recreational fishing is fishing primarily for pleasure or competition; it can be contrasted with commercial fishing , which is fishing for profit, or subsistence fishing, which is fishing primarily for food.

The most common form of recreational fishing is done with a rod , reel , line , hooks , and any one of a wide range of baits. Recreational fishing is particularly popular in North America and Europe and state, provincial, and federal government agencies actively management target fish species.

Anglers must select the right hook, cast accurately, and retrieve at the right speed while considering water and weather conditions, species, fish response, time of the day, and other factors.

Fish themes have symbolic significance in many religions. In ancient Mesopotamia , fish offerings were made to the gods from the very earliest times.

In the Book of Jonah , a work of Jewish literature probably written in the fourth century BC, the central figure, a prophet named Jonah , is swallowed by a giant fish after being thrown overboard by the crew of the ship he is travelling on.

In the dhamma of Buddhism , the fish symbolize happiness as they have complete freedom of movement in the water. Often drawn in the form of carp which are regarded in the Orient as sacred on account of their elegant beauty, size and life-span.

The astrological symbol Pisces is based on a constellation of the same name , but there is also a second fish constellation in the night sky, Piscis Austrinus.

Fish feature prominently in art and literature, in movies such as Finding Nemo and books such as The Old Man and the Sea. Large fish, particularly sharks, have frequently been the subject of horror movies and thrillers , most notably the novel Jaws , which spawned a series of films of the same name that in turn inspired similar films or parodies such as Shark Tale and Snakehead Terror.

Piranhas are shown in a similar light to sharks in films such as Piranha ; however, contrary to popular belief, the red-bellied piranha is actually a generally timid scavenger species that is unlikely to harm humans.

Though often used interchangeably, in biology these words have different meanings. Fish is used as a singular noun, or as a plural to describe multiple individuals from a single species.

Fishes is used to describe different species or species groups. The distinction is similar to that between people and peoples.

A random assemblage of fish merely using some localised resource such as food or nesting sites is known simply as an aggregation.

When fish come together in an interactive, social grouping, then they may be forming either a shoal or a school depending on the degree of organisation.

A shoal is a loosely organised group where each fish swims and forages independently but is attracted to other members of the group and adjusts its behaviour, such as swimming speed, so that it remains close to the other members of the group.

Schools of fish are much more tightly organised, synchronising their swimming so that all fish move at the same speed and in the same direction.

Shoaling and schooling behaviour is believed to provide a variety of advantages. While the words "school" and "shoal" have different meanings within biology, the distinctions are often ignored by non-specialists who treat the words as synonyms.

Thus speakers of British English commonly use "shoal" to describe any grouping of fish, and speakers of American English commonly use "school" just as loosely.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For fish as eaten by humans, see Fish as food. For other uses, see Fish disambiguation.

Vertebrate animal that lives in water and usually has gills. Main article: Evolution of fish. Main article: Diversity of fish.

Agnatha Pacific hagfish. Chondrichthyes Horn shark. Actinopterygii Brown trout. Sarcopterygii Coelacanth. Further information: Fish anatomy and Fish physiology.

See also: Aquatic respiration. Main article: Fish scale. Main article: Vision in fishes. Further information: Fish intelligence.

Further information: Pain in fish. Main article: Fish locomotion. Further information: Fish reproduction and Spawn biology.

Egg of bullhead shark. Main article: Fish diseases and parasites.

Zoological Science. Crithagra African Love (Fernsehserie), serins and siskins. Fich reefs in the Indo-Pacific constitute the center of diversity for marine fishes, whereas continental freshwater fishes are Filme On diverse in large river basins of tropical rainforestsespecially the LobCongoand Mekong basins. Early fish from the fossil record are represented by a group of small, jawless, armored fish known as ostracoderms. Some of the wastes diffuse through the gills. Mallatt, Judy Minx. Archived PDF from the original on Retrieved 7 March

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